yzThe Romantic Conception of Life:
@@@@@@Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe

yҁzRobert J. Richards
yszDecember 2002
yoŁzThe University of Chicago Press, Chicago
ypzScience and Its Conceptual Foundations
yŐzxx+587 pp.
y艿zUS$ 35.00 (hardcover)

Illustrations xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Prologue xvii

1. Introduction: A Most Happy Encounter 1
The Historical Meaning of _Naturphilosophie_ and Romantic Biology 6

Part One: The Early Romantic Movement in Literature, Philosophy, and Science

2. The Early Romantic Movement 17
Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel 23
Novalis: The Romantic Personality 25
Caroline Boehmer and the Mainz Revolution 36
The Schlegels in Jena:
The Break with Schiller and the Politics of Romanticism 45
Fichte, the Philosopher of Freedom 59
The Salons of Berlin 91
Friedrich Schleiermacher: The Poetics and Erotics of Religion 94
Friedrich Schlegel's Aethetic Theory 105

3. Schelling: The Poetry of Nature 114
Schelling's Early Life 116
Naturphilosophie 128
Schelling in Jena 147
Transcendental Idealism and Poetic Construction 151
Schelling's Affair with Caroline and the Tragedy of Auguste 166
Schelling's Identity of Philosophy 176

4. Denouement: Farewell to Jena 193
The Meaning of Romanticism 199

Part Two: Scientific Foundations of the Romantic Conception of Life

5. Early Theories of Development: Blumenbach and Kant 207
Embryology and Theories of Descent
in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 211
Blumenbach's Theory of the _Bildungstrieb_ 216
Kant's Theory of Biological Explanation 229

6. Kielmeyer and the Organic Powers of Nature 238
Lectures on Organic Forces 241
Theory of Species Origin and Transformation 246
Critique of Kant and the Idealists 248

7. Johann Christian Reil's Romantic Theories of Life and Mind,
or Rhapsodies on a Cat-Piano 252
Early Training and Practice 253
Lebenskraft 255
Studies of Mental Illness 261
The Romantic Movement in Halle 273
The Romantic Naturphilosoph 278
Final Years: War and Romance 282

8. Schelling's Dynamic Evolutionism 289
Biological Treatises 291
Critical Analysis of the Biological Theories of Contemporaries 292
Nature as a Dynamically Shifting Balance of Forces 294
Theory of Dynamic Evolution 298

9. Conclusion: Mechanism, Teleology, and Evolution 307
Appendix: Theories of irritability, Sensibility, and
Vital Forces from Haller to Humboldt 313

Part Three: Goethe, A Genius for Poetry, Morphology, and Women

10. The Erotic Authority of Nature 325
Growing Up in Frankfurt 330
University Education 334
The Law, Herder, and Lotte 339
The Weimar Councillor and the Frustrated Lover 355
The Science of Goethe's First Weimar Period 365
The Unity of Biological Nature:
Goethe's Discovery of the Zwischenkiefer in Human Beings 367
The Impact of Spinoza 376
Goethe's Italian Journey: Art, Nature, and the Female 382
Conclusion 404

11. Goethe's scientific Revolution 407
Homecoming 409
The Foundations of Morphology 413
Friendship with Schiller and Induction into Kantian Philosophy 421
The Science of Morphology 434
The Romantic Circle and Schelling 457
_Zur Morphologie_ 471
The Vertebral Theory of the Skull:
Goethe's Dispute with Oken and the Truth of Memory 491

12. Conclusion: The History of a Life in Art and Science 503

Part Four: Epilogue

13. The Romantic Conception of Life 511

14. Darwin's Romantic Biology 514
The Romantic Movement 516
Darwin's Romantic Conception of Nature 522
Romantic Nature in the _Origin of Species_ 526
Darwin's Theory of Morals 540
Conclusion 552

Bibliography 555
Index 573