【書名】The Structure of Evolutionary Theory
【著者】Stephen Jay Gould
【出版】Harvard University Press, Cambridge
【頁数】xxiv+1433 pp.
【定価】US$ 34.50
【ISBN】0-674-00613-5 (hardcover)

Chapter 1: Defining and revising the structure of evolutionary
theory 1
Part I -- The History of Darwinian Logic and Debate
Chapter 2: The essence of Darwinism and the basis of modern
orthodoxy: An exegesis of the _Origin of Species_ 93
Chapter 3: Seeds of Hierarchy 170
Chapter 4: Internalism and Laws of Form: Pre-Darwinian
alternatives to functionalism 251
Chapter 5: The fruitful facets of Galton's polyhedron:
Channels and saltations in post-Darwinian formalism 342
Chapter 6: Pattern and progress on the geological time 467
Chapter 7: The Modern Synthesis as a limited consensus 503

Segue to Part II 585
Part II -- Towards a Revised and Extended Evolutionary Theory
Chapter 8: Species as individuals in the hierarchical theory of selection 595
Chapter 9: Punctuated equilibrium and the validation of
macroevolutionary theory 745
Chapter 10: The integration of constraint and adaptation
(structure and function) in ontogeny and phylogeny:
Historical constraints and the evolution of development 1025
Chapter 11: The integration of constraint and adaptation
(structure and function) in ontogeny and phylogeny:
Structural constraints, spandrels, and the centrality
of exaptation in macroevolution 1179
Chapter 12: Tiers of time and trials of extrapolationism,
with an epilog on the interaction of general theory
and contingent history 1296

Bibliography 1344
Illustration credits 1388
Index 1393




David Hull (1988), "Science as a Process"(Univ. Chicago Press)をあらかじめ読んでおかないと、グールドがこの大著の中でいったい【何】と戦おうとしているのかが理解できないと思う。というのも、彼は確信犯的な【本質主義者】だから――そのスタンスを生物進化だけでなく、科学そのものにも適用しようとしている。したがって、Hull とは正面衝突。

Hull は概念進化における「系譜」に着目して、過程としての科学をその系譜的視点から見ようとする。一方で、グールドは系譜だけではない科学理論の「形態」的定義形質によって、ある理論の本質的特徴を把握しようとする。グールド自身「理論の固有派生形質(autapomorphy)」という分岐学の言葉をわざわざ用いていることからわかるように、理論進化における概念単系統群の存在は認めるのだが、本質的特徴(バウプランという表現もあった)を共有する理論の群(必ずしも単系統的ではない)をも認めていこうという姿勢が感じられる。



--- 下記の詳細目次は石田健さんの入力による ---
"Expanded Contents"

Chapter 1: Defining and Revisiting the Structure of Evolutionary Theory 1
Theories Needs Both Essences and Histories 1
The Structure of Evolutionary Theory: Revising the Three Central Features of Darwinian Logic 12
Aplogia Pro Vita Sua 24
A time to Keep 24
A personal Odyssey 33
Epitomes for a Long Development 48
Levels of Potnetial Originality 48
An Abstract of One Long Argument 53

Part I: The History of Darwinian Logic and Debate
Chapter 2: The Essence of Darwinism and the Basis of Modern Orthodoxy: An Exegesis of the Origin of Species 93
A Revolution in the Small 93
Darwin as a Historical Methodologist 97
One Long Argument 97
The Problem of History 99
A Fourfold Continuum of Methods for the Inference of History 103
Darwin as a Philosophical Revolutionary 116
The Causes of Nature's Harmony 116
Darwin and William Paley 116
Darwin and Adam Smith 121
The First Theme: The Organism as the Agent of Selection 125
The Second Theme: Natural Selection as a Creative Force 137
The Requirements for Variation 141
Copious 141
Small 143
Undirected 144
Gradualism 146
The Adaptationist Program 155
The Third Theme: The Uniformitarian Need to Extrapolate: Environment as Enabler of Change 159
Judgments of Importance 163

Chapter 3: Seeds of Hierachy 170
Lamarck and the Birth of Modern Evolutinism in Two-Factor Theories 170
Two-Factor Theories 170
The Myths of Lamarck 176
Lamarch as a Source 170
Lamarck's Two-Factor Theory: Sources for the Two Parts 175
The First Set: Environment and Adaptation 176
The Second Set: Progress and Taxonomy 179
Distinctness of the Two Sets 181
Lamarck's Two-Factor Theory: The hierarchy of Progress and Deviation 175
Antinomies of the Two-Factor Theory 189
An Interlude of Darwin's Reaction 192
No Allmacht without Hierarchy: Weissman on Germinal Selection 197
The Allmacht of Selection 197
Weismann's Argument on Lamarch and the Allmacht of Selection 201
The Problem of Degeneration and Weissman's Impetus for Germinal Selection 203
Some Antecedents to Hierarchy in German Evolutionary Thought 208
Haeckel's Descriptive Hierarchy in Levels of Organization 208
Roux's Theory of Intracorporeal Struggle 210
Germinal Selection as a Helpmate to Personal Selection 214
Germinal Selction as a Full Theroy of Hierarchy 219
Hints of Hierarchy in Supraorganismal Selectio: Darwin on the Principle of Divergence 224
Divergence and the Completion of Darwin's System 224
The Genesis of Divergence 232
Divergence as Cosequecne of Natural Selection 234
The Failure of Darwin's Argument and the Need for Species Selection 236
The Calculus of Individual Success 238
The Causes of Trends 240
Species Selection Based on Propensity for Extinction 246
Postscript: Solution to the Problem of the "Delicate Arrangement" 248
Coda 249

Chapter 4: Internalism and Laws of Form: Pre-Darwinian Alternatives to Functionalism 251
Prolongue: Darwin's Fateful Decision 251
Two Ways to Glorify God in Nature 260
William Paley and British Fuctionalism: Praising God in the Details of Design 262
Louis Agassiz and Continental Formalism: Praising God in the Gradeur of Taxoniomic Order 271
An Epilog on the Dichotomy 278
Unity of Plan as the Strongest Version of Formalism: The Pre-Darwinian Debate 281
Mehr Licht on Goethe's Leaf 281
Geoffroy and Cuvier 291
Cuvier and Conditions of Exixtence 291
Geoffroy's Formalist Vision 298
The Debate of 1830: Foreplay and Aftermath 304
Richard Owen and English Formalism: The Archetype of Vertebrates 312
No Formalism Please, We're British 312
The Vertebrate Arherype: Constraint and Nonadaptation 316
Owen and Darwin 326
Darin's Strong but Limited Interest in Structural Constraint 330
Darwin's Debt to Both Poles of the Dichotomy 330
Darwin on Correlation of Pars 332
The "Quite Subordinate Position" of Constraint to Selection 339

Chapter 5: The Fruitful Facets of Galton's Polyhedron: Channels and Saltations in Post-Darwinian Formalism 342
Galton's Polyhedron 342
Orthogenesis as a Theory of Channels and One-Way Streets: the Marginalization of Darwinism 351
Misconceptions and Relative Frequencies 351
Theodor Eimer and the Ohnemacht of Selection 355
Alpheus Hyatt: An Orthogentic Dove in Darwin's World of Pieons 383
Saltation as a Theory of Internal Impetus: A Second Formalist Starategy for Pushing Darwinism to a Causal Periphery 396
William Bateson: The Documentation of Infwerent Discontinuity 396
Hugo der Vries: A Most Reluctatn Non-Darwinian 415
Dousting the Great Party of 1909 415
The (Not So Contradictory) Sources of the Mutation Theory 418
The Mutation Theroy: Origin and Central Tenets 425
Darwinism and the Mutation Theory 439
Confusing Thetoric and the PErsonal Factore 439
The Logic of Darwinism and Its Different Place in de Vires' Sysytem 443
De Vries on Macroevoltion 446
Richard Goldschmidt's Appropriate Role as a Formalist Embodiment of All that Pure Darwininsm Must Oppose 451

Chapter 6: Pattern and Progress on the Geological Stage 467
Darwin and the Fruits of Biotic Competition 467
A geolgical License for Progress 467
The Predominance of Biotic Competition and Its Sequelae 470
Uniformity on the Geological State 479
Lyell's Victory in Fact and Thetoric 479
Catastrophism as Good Science: Cuvier's Odious Spectre 492
A Question of Time (Too Little Geology) 496
A Question of Direction (Too Much Geology) 497

Chapter 7: The Modern Synthesis as a Limited Consensus 503
Why Synthesis? 503
Synthesis as Restriction 505
The Initial Goal of Rejecting Old Alternatives 505
R.A. Fishre and the Darwininan Cores 508
J.B.S. Haldane and the Initail Pluralism of the Synthesis 514
J.S. Huxley: Pluralims of the Type 518
Synthesis as Hardening 518
The Later Goal of Exalting Selection's Power 518
Increasing Emphasis on Selection and Adaptation between the First (1937) and Last (1951) Edition of Dobzhansky's Genetics and the Origin of Species 524
The Shift in G.G. Simpson's Explanatino of "Quantum Evolution" from Drift and Nonadaptation (1944) to the Emvodiment of Strict Adaptation (1953) 528
Mayr at the Inception (1942) and Codification (1963): Shifting from the "Genetic Consistency" to "Adaptationist" Paradhigm 531
Why Hardening ? 541
Hardening on the Other Two Legs of the darwininan Tripod 543
Levels of Selection 544
Extrapolation into Geological Time 556
From Overstressed Doubts to Overextended Certainty 566
A Tale of Two Centennnials 566
All Quiet on the Textbook Front 577
Adaptation and Natural Selection 577
Reduction and Trivialization of Macroevolution 579

Segue to Part II

Part II: Towards a Revised and Expanded Evolutionary Theory

Chapter 8: Species as Individuals in the Hierarchical Theory of Selection 595
The Evolutinary Definition of Individuality 595
An Individualistic Prolegomenon 595
The Meaning of Individuality and the Expansion of the Darwinian Reserach Program 597
Criteria for Vernacular Individuality 602
Criteria for Evolutionary Individuality 608
The Evolutionry Definition of Selective Agency and the Fallacy fo Selfish Genes 613
A Fruitful Error of Logic 613
Hierarchical vs. Genic Selectionism 614
The Distinction of Replicators and Interactores as a Framework for Discussion 615
Faithfull Repliation as the Central Criterion for the Gene-Centered View of Evolution 616
Sieves, Plurifiers, and the Nature of Selection: The Rejection of Replication as a Criterion of Agency 619
Interaction as the Proper Criterion for Identifying Units of Selcection 622
The Internal Inchoherence of Gene Selectioninsm 625
Bookkeeping and Causality: The Fundamental Error of Gene Selectionism 632
Gambits of Reform and Retreat by Gene Selectionists 637
Logical and Empirical Foundations for the Theory of Hierarchical Selection 644
Logical Validation and Empirical Challenges 644
R.A. Fisher and the Compelling Logic of Species Slelction 644
The Classical Arguments against Efficacy fo Higher-Level Selection 646
Overcoming These Classical Arguments, in Practice for Interdemic Selection, but in Principle for Species Selection 648
Emergence and the Proper Criterion for Speceis Selection 652
Differential Proliferation or Downward Effect? 652
Shall Emergent Characters of Emergent Fitnesses Define the
Operation of Species Slection ?
Hierarchy and the Sixfold Way 673
A Literary Prologue for the Two Major Properties of Hierarchies 673
Redressing the Tyranny of the Organimsm: Comments on Characteristic Features and Differences among Six Primary Levels 681
The Gene-Individual 683
Motoo Kimura and the "Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution" 684
True Genic Selection 689
The Cell-Individual 695
The Organism-Individual 700
The Deme-Individual 701
The Species-Individual 703
Species as Individuals 703
Species as Interactors 704
Species Selection as Potent 709
The Clade-Individuals 712
The Grand Analogy: A Speciational Basis for Macroevolution 714
Presentation of the Chart for Macroevolutionary Distinctiveness 714
The Particulars of Macroevolutionary Explanation 716
The Structural Basis 716
Criteria for Individuality 720
Contrasting Modalities of Change: The Basic Cateroies 721
Ontogenetci Drive: The Analogy of Lamarchism and Anagenesis 722
Reproductive Drive: Directinal Speciation as an Important and
Irreducible Macroevolutionary Mode Separate from Species Slection 724
Species Selection, Wright's Rule, and the Power of Interaction with Directional Speciation 731
Species Level Drifts More Powerful than the Analogous Phenomena in Microevolution 735
The Scaling of External and Internal Environments 738
Summary Comments on the Strengths of Species Selection and its Interaction with Ohre Macroevolutionary Causes of Change 741

Chapter 9: Punctuated Equilibrium and the Validation of Macroevolutionary Theory 745
What Every Paleontolist Knoew 745
An Introductory Example 745
Testionials to Common Knowledge 749
Darwinian Solutions and Paradoxes 755
The Paradox of Insulation form Disproof 758
The Paradox of Stymied Practice 761
The Primary Claims of Punctuated Equilibirum 765
Data and Definitions 765
Microevolutionary Links 774
Macroevolutionary Implications 781
Tempo and the Significance of Stasis 782
Mode and the Speciational Foundation of Macroevolution 783
The Scientific Debate on Punctuated Equilibrium: Critiques and Responses 784
Critiques Based on the Definability of Paleontological Speceis 784
Empirical Affirmation 784
Reasons for Potential Systematic Undrestimation of Biospecies by Paleospecies 789
Reasons for a Potential Systematic Overestimation of Biospecies by Paleospecies 792
Reasons Why an Observed Punctuational Pattern Might Not epresent Specieation 793
Critiques Based on Denying Events of Speciations as the Primary Locus of Change 796
Critiques Based on Supposed Failures of Empirical Results to Affirm Predictions of Punctuated Equilibrium 802
Claims for Empirical Refutation by Cases 803
Phenotypes 802
Genotypes 810
Empirical Tests of Conformity with Models 812
Source of Data for Testing Punctuated Equilibrium 822
Preamble 822
The Equilibrium in Punctuated Equilibrium: Tempo and Mode in the Origin of Paleospecies 839
The Inference of Cladogenesis by the Criterion of Ancestral Survival 840
The "Dissection" of Punctuations to Infer Both Existence and Modality 850
Time 851
Geography 852
Morphometric Mode 852
Proper and Adequite Test of Relative Frequencies: The Strong Empirical Validation of Punctuated Eauilibrium 854
The Indispensability of Data on Relative Frequencies 854
Realtive Frequecies for Higher Taxa in Entire Biotas 856
Relarive Frequecies for Entire Clades 866
Causal Clues from Differential Patterns of Relative Frequecies 870
The Broader Implications of Punctuated Equilibrium for Evolutionary Theory and General Notions of Change 874
What Changes May Punctuated Equilibrium Instigate in Our Views about Evolutionary Mehchanisms and the History of Life? 874
The Explanation and Broader Meaning of Stasis 874
Frequecy 875
Generality 876
Punctuation, the Origin of New Macroevolutinary Individuals, and Resulting Implications for Evolutionary Theory 885
Trends 886
The Specicational Reformulation of Macroevolution 893
Life Itself 897
General Rules 901
Particular Cases 905
Horses as the Exemplar of "Life's Little Joke" 908
Rethinking Human Evolution 916
Ecological and Higher-Level Extensions 916
Punctuation All the Way Up and Down? The Generalization and Broader Utility of Puncutuated Equilibrium (in More Than a Metaphorical Sense) at Other Levels of Evolution, and for Other Disciplines In and Outside the Natural Sciences 922
General Models for Punctuated Eauilibrium 922
Punctuational Change at Other Levels and Scales of Evolution 928
A preliminary Note on Homolgy and Analogy in the Conceptual Realm 931
Punctuation Below the Species Level 931
Punctuation Above the Speceis Level 936
Stasis Analogs: Trending and Non-Trending in the Geological history of Clades 936
Puctuational Analogs in Lineages: The Pace of Morphological Innovation 939
Punctuational Analogs in Fauns and Ecosystems 946
Punctuational Models in Other Disciplines: Towards a General Theroy of Change 952
Principles for a Choice of Examples 952
Examples from the History of Human Artifacts and Cultures 952
Examples from Human Institutions and Therories about the Natural World 957
Two Conluding Examples, a GeneralStatemetn, and a Codea 962
Appendix: A Largely Sociological (and Fully Partisan) History of the Impact and Critique of Puctuated Equilibrium 972
The Entrance of Punctuatd Equilibrium into Common Language and General Culture 972
An Episodic History of Punctuated Equilibrium 979
Early Stages and Future Contexts 979
Creationist Misappropriation of Puctuated Equilibrium 986
Punctuated Equilibrium in Journalism and Textbooks 990
The Personal Aspect of Progessional Reaction 999
The Case Ad Hominem against Punctuated Equilibrium 1000
An Interlude on Sources of Error 1010
The Wages of Jealousy 1014
The Descent to Nastiness 1014
The Most Unkindest Cut of All 1019
The Wisdom of Agassiz's adn von Baer's Threefold History of Scientific Ideas 1021
A Coda on the Kindness and Generosity of Most Colleagues 1022

Chapter 10: The Integration of Constraint and Adaptation (Structure and Function) in Ontogey and Phylogeny: Historical Constraints and the Evolution of Development 1025
Constraint as a Positive Concept 1025
Two Kinds of Positivity 1025
An Entomological Introduction 1025
The First (Empirical) Positive Meaning of Channeling 1027
The Second (Definitional) Positive Meaning of Causes outside Accepted Mechanism 1032
Heterochrony and Allometry as the Locus Classicus of the First Positive (Empirical) Meaning. Channeled Directionality by Constraint. 1037
The Two Structural Themes of Internally Set Channels and Ease of Transformation as Potentially Synergistic with Runctional Causality by Natural Selection: Increasing Shell Stability in the Gryphaea Heterochronocline 1040
Ontogenetically Channeled Allometric Constraint as a Primary Basis of Expressed Evolutionary Variation: The Full Geographic and Morphological Range of Cerion uva 1045
The Aptive Triangle and the Second Positive Meanig: Constraint as a Theory-Boud Term for Patterns and Directions Not Built Exclusively (Or Sometimes Even at All) by Natural Selection 1951
The Model of the Aptive Triangle 1051
Distinguishing and Sharpenning the Two Great Questions 1053
The Structural Vertex 1053
Teh Historical Vertex 1055
An Epitome for the Theory-Bound Nature of Constraint Terminology 1057
Deep Homolgy and Pervasive Parallelism: Histrocal Constraint as the Primary Gatekeeper and Guardian of Morphospace 1061
A Historical and Conceptual Analysis of the Underappreciated Importance of Parallelism for Evolutionary Theory 1061
A Context for Excitement 1061
A Terminological Excursus on the Meaning of Parallelism 1069
The Nine Fateful Little Words of E. Ray Lankester 1069
The Terminological Origin and Debate about the Meaning and Utility of Parallelism 1076
A Symphony in Four Movements on the Role of Historical Constraint in Evolution: Towards the Harmonious Rebalancing of Form and Function in Evolutinary Theory 1089
Movement One, Statement: Deep Homology across Phyla: Mayr's Fuctional Certainty and Geoffroy's Strctural Vindication 1089
Deep Homolgy, Archetypal Theories, and Historical Constraint 1089
Historical Constrant 1089
Mehr Licht (More Light) on Goethe's Angiosperm Archetype 1092
Hoxology and Geoffroy's First Archetypal Theory of Segmental Homology 1095
An Epitome and Capsule Hitory of Hoxology 1095
Vertebrate Homologs in Structure and Action 1101
Segmental Homologies of Arthropods and Vertebrates; Geoffroy's Vindication 1106
Rediscovering the Vertebarte Rhombomeres 1107
More Extensive Homologies throughout the Developing Somites 1109
Some Caveats and Tentative Conclusions 1112
Geogrey's Second Archetypal Theory of Dorso-Ventral Inversion in the Common Bilaterian Groudplan 1117
Movement Two, Elaboration: Parallelism of Underlying Generators: Deep Homolgy Builds Positive Channels of Constraint 1122
Parallelism All the Way Down: Shining a Light and Feeding the Walk 1122
Parallelism in the Large: Pax-6 adn the Homology of Developmental Pathways in Homoplastic Eyes of Weveral Phyla 1123
Data nd Discovery 1123
Theorentical Issues 1127
A Question of Priority 1130
Paralelism in the Small: The Origin of Crustacena Feeding Organs 1132
Pharaonic Bricks and Corinthian Columns 1134
Movement Three, Scherzo: Does Evolutionary Change Often Proceed by Saltation Down Channels of Histoical Constraint? 1142
Movement Four, Recapitulation and Summary: Early Establishment of Rules and the Inhomogenous Populatin of Morphospace; Dobzhansky's Landscap as Primarily Structural and Historical, Not Functional and Immediate 1147
Bilaterian History as Top-Down by Tinkeringn of an Initial Set of Rules, Not Bottom-Up by Adding Increments of Complexity 1147
Setting of Historical Constraints in the Cambrian Explosion 1155
Channeling the Subsequent Directions of Bilaterian History from the Inside 1161
An Epilog on Dobzhansky's Landscape and the Dominant Role of Historical Constraint in the Clumped Population of Morhpospace 1173

Chapter 11: The Integration of Constraint and Adaptation (Structure and Function) in Ontogeny and Phylogeny: Structural Constraints, Spandrels, and the Centrality of Exaptation in Macroevolution 1179
The Timeless Physics of Evolved Function 1179
Structuralim's Odd Man Outside 1179
D'Arcy Thompson's Science of Form 1182
The Structure of an Argument 1182
The Tactic and Application of an Argument 1189
The Admitted Limitation and Ultimate Failure of an Argument 1196
Odd Man In (D'Arcy Thompson's Structuralist Critique of Darwinism) and Odd Man Out (His Disparagenment of Historicism) 1200
An Epilog to an Argument 1207
Order for Free and Realms of Relevance for Thompsonian Structuralism 1208
Exapting the Rich and Inevitable Spandrels of History 1214
Nietzshe's Most Importnat Proposition of Historical Method 1214
Exaptation and the Principle of Quirky Functional Shift: The
Restricted Darwininan Version as the Gound of Contigency 1218
How Darwin Resolved Mivart's Challenge of Incipient Stages 1218
The Two Great Historical and Structural Implications of Quirky Functional Shift 1224
How Exaptation Completes and Rationalizes the Terminology of Evolutionary Change by Functinal Shifting 1229
Key Criteria and Examples of Exaptation 1234
The Complete Version, Replete with Spandrels: Exaptation and the Terminology of Nonadaptative Origin 1246
The More Radical Category of Exapted Features with Truly Nonadaptive Origins as Structural Constraints 1246
Defining and Defending Spandresls: A Revisit to San Marco 1249
Three Major Reasons for the Centrality of Spandrels, and Therefore of Nonadaptation, in Evolutionary Theory 1258
The Exaptive Pool: The Proper Conceptural Formula and Ground of Evolvability 1270
Resolving the Paradox of Evolvability and Defining the Exaptive Pool 1270
The Taxonomy of the Exaptive Pool 1277
Franklins and Miltons, or Inherent Potentials vs. Available Things 1277
Choosing a Fundamentum Divisionis for a Taxonomy: An Apparently Arcane adn Linguistic Matter That Acturally Embodies a Central Scientific Decision 1280
Cross-Level Effects as Miltonic Spandrels, Not Franklinian Potenstials: The Nub of Integration and Radical Importance 1286
A Closing Comments to Resolve the Macroevolutionary Paradox that Constraint Ensures Flexibility Wherears Selection Grafts Restriction 1294

Chapter 12: Tiers of Time and Trials of Extrapolationinsm, With and Epilog on the Interaction of General Theory and Contingent History 1296
Failure of extrapolationism in the Non-Isotropy of Time and Geology 1296
The Specter of Catastrophic Mass Extinction: Darwin to Chicxulub 1296
The Paradox of the First Tier: Towards a General Theory of Tiers of Time 1320
An Epilog on Theory and History in Creating the Grandeur of This View of Life 1332