yzFoundations of Biogeography: Classic Papers with Commentaries
yҎҁzLomolino, Mark V., Dov F. Sax, and James H. Brown
yURL zhttp://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/15840.ctl
ysz2004N
yoŁzThe University of Chicago Press, Chicago
yŐzxx+1291 pp.
y艿zUS$ 135.00 (cloth) / US$ 45.00 (paper)
yISBNz0-226-49236-2 (cloth) / 0-226-49237-0 (paper)



yڎz

Preface xix
Introduction (James H. Brown) 1

PART 1 - Early classics

(John C. Briggs and Christopher J. Humphries) 5

1. Carlous Linnaeus (1781) : excerpts from Dissertation II, on the increase of the habitable earth 14
2. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Compte de Buffon (1761) : excerpts from Natural history, general and particular 16
3. Johann Reinhold Forster (1778) : excerpts from Observations made during a voyage round the world, on physical geography, natural history, and ethic philosophy 19
4. Augustin de Candolle (1820) : excerpt from Essai elementaire de geographie Botanique 28
5. Alexander von Humboldt (1805) : excerpt from Essay on the geography of plants 49
6. Edward Forbes (1844) : excerpts from Report on the mollusca and radiata of the Aegean Sea, and on their distribution, considered as bearing on geology 58
7. James Dwight Dana (1853) : On an isothermal oceanic chart, illustrating the geographical distribution of marine animals 88
8. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1853) : excerpt from The botany of the Antartic voyage of H. M. Discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839-1843 109
9. Philip Lutley Sclater (1858) : On the general geographical distribution of the members of the class aves 118
10. Asa Gray (1876) : excerpt from Darwiniana : essays and reviews pertaining to Darwinism 134
11. Charles Darwin (1859) : excerpts from On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 140
12. Alfred Russel Wallace (1876) : excerpt from The geographical distribution of animals 164
13. Ernst Haeckel (1876) : excerpt from The history of creation, or the development of the earth and its inhabitants by the action of natural causes 178
14. Hermann von Ihering (1900) : The history of the neotropical region 194
15. Clinton Hart Merriam (1890) : excerpt from Results of a biological survey of the San Francisco mountain region and desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona 202
16. William Diller Matthew (1915) : excerpt from Climate and evolution 234
17. Sven Ekman (1953) : excerpt from Zoogeography of the sea 245
18. Evgenii Vladimirovitch Wulff (1943) : excerpt from An introduction to historical plant geography 249

PART 2 - Earth history, vicariance, and dispersal

(Paul S. Giller, Alan A. Myers, and Brett R. Riddle) 267

19. Alfred Wegener (1924) : excerpt from The origin of continents and oceans 277
20. Lars Brundin (1966) : excerpt from Transantarctic relationships and their significance, as evidenced by chironomid midges 295
21. Sherwin Carlquist (1966) : The biota of long-distance dispersal, I : principles of dispersal and evolution 315
22. George Gaylord Simpson (1940) : Mammals and land bridges 339
23. Anthony Hallam (1967) : The bearing of certain palaeozoogeographic data on continental drift 366
24. Philip J. Darlington, Jr. (1965) : excerpt from Biogeography of the southern end of the world 407
25. Larry G. Marshall, S. David Webb, J. John Sepkoski, Jr., and David M. Raup (1982) : Mammalian evolution and the Great American interchange 419
26. Francis Dov Por (1971) : One hundred years of Suez Canal - a century of lessepsian migration : retrospect and viewpoints 426

PART 3 - Species ranges

(Robert Hengeveld, Paul S. Giller, and Brett R. Riddle) 449

27. Joseph Grinnell (1922) : The role of the "accidental" 456
28. Eric Hulten (1937) : excerpts from Outline of the history of Arctic and boreal biota during the Quaternary period 464
29. Evgenii Vladimirovitch Wulff (1943) : excerpt from An introduction to historical plant geography 513
30. Jeremy D. Holloway and Nicholas Jardine (1968) : Two approaches to zoogeography : a study based on the distributions of butterflies, birds and bats in the Indo-Australian area 536
31. Charles S. Elton (1958) : excerpt from The ecology of invasions by animals and plants 575
32. Daniel H. Janzen (1967) : Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics 594
33. Philip V. Wells and Rainer Berger (1967) : Late Pleistocene history of coniferous woodland in the Mohave Desert 611
34. John R. Flenley (1979) : The late quaternary vegetational history of the equatorial mountains 619
35. Paul S. Martin (1973) : The discovery of America 641

PART 4 - Revolutions in historical biogeography

(Vicki A. Funk) 647
36. Lars Brundin (1966) : excerpt from Transantarctic relationships and their significance, as evidenced by chironomid midges 658
37. Willi Hennig (1966) : excerpt from Phylogenetic systematics 679
38. Gareth J. Nelson (1969) : The problem of historical biogeography 686
39. Leon Croizat (1962) : excerpt from Space, time, form : the biological synthesis 690
40. Leon Croizat, Gareth J. Nelson and Donn Eric Rosen (1974) : Centers of origin and related concepts 705
41. Gareth J. Nelson (1974) : Historical biogeography : an alternative formalization 728
42. Norman I. Platnick and Gareth J. Nelson (1978) : A method of analysis for historical biogeography 732
43. Donn E. Rosen (1978) : Vicariant patterns and historical explanation in biogeography 748

PART 5 - Diversification

(Lawrence R. Heaney and Geerat Vermeij) 779

44. Bernard Rensch (1960) : excerpt from Evolution above the species level 789
45. Ernst Mayr (1942) : excerpt from Systematics and the origin of species 811
46. David Lack (1947) : excerpts from Darwin's finches 833
47. Philip J. Darlington, Jr. (1959) : Area, climate, and evolution 852
48. James W. Valentine (1969) : Patterns of taxonomic and ecological structure of the shelf benthos during Phanerozoic time 875
49. David M. Raup (1972) : Taxonomic diversity during the Phanerozoic 901
50. Jurgen Haffer (1969) : Speciation in Amazonian forest birds 908
51. Guy L. Bush (1969) : Sympatric host race formation and speciation in frugivorous flies of the genus Rhagoletis (diptera, tephritidae) 915

PART 6 - The importance of islands

(Robert J. Whittaker) 931

52. Olof Arrhenius (1921) : Species and area 942
53. Edward O. Wilson (1959) : Adaptive shift and dispersal in a tropical ant fauna 947
54. Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson (1963) : An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography 970
55. Daniel S. Simberloff and Edward O. Wilson (1970) : Experimental zoogeography of islands : a two-year record of colonization 985
56. James H. Brown (1971) : Mammals on mountaintops : nonequilibrium insular biography 989
57. Jared M. Diamond (1974) : Colonization of exploded volcanic islands by birds : the supertramp strategy 1001
58. Jared M. Diamond (1975) : The island dilemma : lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design of natural reserves 1005
59. Storrs L. Olson and Helen F. James (1982) : Fossil birds from the Hawaiian islands : evidence for wholesale extinction by man before Western contact 1023

PART 7 - Assembly rules

(Nicholas J. Gotelli) 1027

60. Philip J. Darlington, Jr. (1957) : excerpt from Zoogeography : the geographic distribution of animals 1036
61. Charles S. Elton (1946) : Competition and the structure of ecological communities 1041
62. Carrington Bonsor Williams (1947) : The generic relations of species in small ecological communities 1056
63. Robert H. Whittaker (1967) : Gradient analysis of vegetation 1064
64. Robert H. MacArthur (1972) : excerpts from Geographical ecology : patterns in the distributions of species 1122
65. Jared M. Diamond (1975) : excerpt from Assembly of species communities 1127
66. Edward F. Connor and Daniel S. Simberloff (1979) : The assembly of species communities : chance or competition? 1135

PART 8 - Gradients in species diversity : why are there so many species in the tropics?

(James H. Brown and Dov F. Sax) 1145

67. Theodosius Dobzhansky (1950) : Evolution in the tropics 1155
68. Alfred G. Fischer (1960) : Latitudinal variations in organic diversity 1168
69. George Gaylord Simpson (1964) : Species density of North American recent mammals 1186
70. Eric R. Pianka (1966) : Latitudinal gradients in species diversity : a review of concepts 1203
71. Robert H. MacArthur (1972) : excerpts from Geographical ecology : patterns in the distribution of species 1217
72. Robert H. Whittaker and William A. Niering (1975) : Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, V : biomass, production and diversity along the elevation gradient 1254

References 1275
List of Contributors 1287
Index 1289